This article provides an analysis of various explanations of the over-represenation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system. Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System When Indigenous youth come into contact with the criminal justice system, they are confronted with discriminatory assessments that increase their likelihood of being sentenced (Minaker and Hogeveen 2009). Most Aboriginal offenders enter the criminal justice 11 One example of a JR project currently underway is the Maranguka Justice Reinvestment Project at Bourke in NSW that, inter alia, is looking to address issues with breaches of bail, outstanding warrants and unlicensed These issues include over policing, ineffective representation, inadequate application of bail, and over sentencing, which are all indications of systemic racism. Overrepresentation of Indigenous youth in Canada’s Criminal Justice System: Perspectives of Indigenous young people May 2018 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 52(1):000486581877874 There are only a few national data sources that provide criminal justice statistics disaggregated by Indigenous identity. The increasing status of Indigenous overrepresentation is a clear indication of the failures of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. The increasing status of Indigenous overrepresentation is a clear indication of the failures of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. They are exacerbated within the criminal justice system, where Indigenous youth encounter discriminatory barriers that have contributed towards their drastic overrepresentation among incarcerated youth populations. the NSW criminal justice system, making up 24 per cent of its adult prisoners, and 52 per cent of juvenile detainees, despite being just 2.9 per cent of the state’s population. Chapter 2 Indigenous youth and the criminal justice system: an overview : The critical need for early intervention High rates of offending and disadvantage Social norms and family dysfunction Connection to community and culture Health Education Employment Accommodation Overrepresentation and Closing the Gap The need for justice targets Over the past five years, the rate of Aboriginal youth (aged 10-17 years) under justice supervision decreased by 13.1 per cent (from 170.2 to 147.9 per 10,000) compared with a 34.8 per cent decrease among non-Aboriginal youth (from 16.2 to 10.6 per 10,000). INDIGENOUS OVERREPRESENTATION IN THE CANADIAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Justice Canada or the Government of Canada. Overrepresentation of Native Americans in the Justice System. 2018 Oct;62(13):4067-4090. doi: 10.1177/0306624X18764524. Overrepresentation of . The overrepresentation of Aboriginal youth in the Canadian justice system is clearly established as a historical and ongoing problem, indicative of the failure of the Canadian criminal justice system to meet the needs of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (Jackson, 1989; In recent years, the Queensland Police Service (QPS) and Queensland courts have sought to rely on a range of 'diversionary' practices such as youth justice conferencing and cautioning as a response to the alarmingly high rates of over- representation of Indigenous youth in Queensland's criminal justice system. Scott Clark, Ph.D. 2019 . Specifically, the study sought (a) their thoughts on broader issues that In 2016, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people constituted just 2% of the Australian adult population but comprised more than one quarter (27%) of the national adult prison population. National data that does exist to identify Indigenous people in the criminal justice system include the General Social Survey (GSS) on self-reported victimization, police-reported homicide statistics, and data on provincial/territorial and federal custody. While overrepresentation may be the most obvious example of the problems Aboriginal people have with the criminal justice system, in many ways over- and under-policing, although more difficult to demonstrate statistically, are equally serious. When analyzing the historical and current situation of the relationship between Indigenous persons and the CJS it becomes apparent why the Supreme Court of Canada refers to this situation as the ‘Crisis in the Canadian Justice System’. Figures from the Justice Department paint a dark picture of the state of Indigenous incarceration, with aboriginal youth seriously overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Description. Overrepresentation of Indigenous youth in Canada’s Criminal Justice System: Perspectives of Indigenous young people The central purpose of this study was to provide a platform for Indigenous young peoples’ opinions regarding the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people in the criminal justice system. ... Indigenous people entering the criminal justice system. Indigenous People in the . 2.0 Criminal justice system bias and amplification 3.0 Early life environmental influences 4.0 Overall summary and conclusions Over-policing refers to the practice of Experts say one way to reduce overrepresentation in jails of aboriginal people and blacks would be an overhaul of the justice system itself, as suggested in the … Indigenous people are overrepresented in Canada's criminal justice system as both victims and offenders. The historical assimilation policies linked to Canada’s legacy of colonialism have held social, economic, and cultural repercussions for Indigenous communities. This overrepresentation was highlighted by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody as a contributing factor to the rate of Indigenous deaths in custody (Commonwealth of Australia 1991). In the Social Justice Report 2009 my predecessor, Tom Calma, proposed ‘justice reinvestment’ as a possible solution to the over representation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system. Justice reinvestment is a localised criminal justice policy approach that first emerged in the United States. The overrepresentation of Native Americans in the criminal justice system is a nationally underreported story, according to a recent article in Nieman Reports. Restorative Justice Conferencing: Not a Panacea for the Overrepresentation of Australia's Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol . This debate has been ongoing since the early 1980s, with seemingly no end in sight. Jasjit Goraya Canadian criminologists and policymakers alike have long debated the issue of “disproportionate minority confinement,” or the overrepresentation of minority youth in the criminal justice system. Indigenous people are overrepresented in Canada's criminal justice system as both victims and offenders. Some authors have argued that the primary cause of over-representation is widespread criminality among Indigenous peoples, rather than what is sometimes termed 'systemic bias' in the criminal justice system. 3.13 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are disproportionately represented in Australian prison populations. The overrepresentation of Indigenous youth in the criminal justice system is a national crisis and Commonwealth, state and territory governments must respond rapidly and effectively to prevent current and future generations of young Indigenous people from entering into the criminal justice system. Explanations for this overrepresentation are both historical injustices, and the contemporary outcomes, faced by Indigenous Peoples and structural issues within the current criminal justice system. The overrepresentation of Indigenous young people in the criminal justice system is one of Australia's most significant social problems. Key among the reasons for its never-ending nature include: the fact that policies often… Criminal statistics show that people of muslim religion, black race, of male gender and of lower class are overrepresented in the criminal justice system and prison populations in particular. Both social and systemic issues contribute to this, including aspects of the justice system. Indigenous overrepresentation in the criminal justice system. Over-Representation of Indigenous People in the Criminal Justice System: Some Conceptual and Explanatory Issues Chris Cunneen* Introduction1 They are the living example of a whole race of criminals, and have all the passions and all the vices of criminals (Cesare Lombroso, Crime: its Causes and Remedies, p 39). In recent years, the Queensland Police Service (QPS) and Queensland courts have sought to rely on a range of ‘diversionary’ practices such as youth justice conferencing and cautioning as a response to the alarmingly high rates of over- representation of Indigenous youth in Queensland’s criminal justice system. Combatting Over-representation of Indigenous Youth in the Queensland Criminal Justice System through ‘Justice Reinvestment’ goals and which are evidenced based. When analyzing the historical and current situation of the relationship between Indigenous persons and the CJS it becomes apparent why the Supreme Court of Canada refers to … Indigenous people in criminal justice system populations are also younger than non-Indigenous people. Overrepresentation of Indigenous youth in Canada’s Criminal Justice System: Perspectives of Indigenous young people Carla Cesaroni, Chris Grol, and Kaitlin Fredericks Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 2018 52 : 1 , 111-128 National data on Indigenous people in the criminal justice system includes data on self-reported victimization , police-reported homicide, and provincial/territorial and federal custody. Indigenous Youth Experience in the Criminal Justice System Given the historically exploitative relationship between Indigenous people and law enforcement, Indigenous youth possess a strong distrust of the legal system even before they personally have any interaction with it.19 This pre-existing fear and hatred, in conjunction with Canadian Criminal Justice System: Causes and Responses. Abstract. Restorative Justice Conferencing: Not a Panacea for the Overrepresentation of Australia’s Indigenous Youth in the Criminal Justice System Simon Little, Anna Stewart, and Nicole Ryan International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2018 62 : 13 , 4067-4090 Over Representation of Indigenous Youth in Criminal Justice in Canada Introduction The connection of assimilation policies in Canada's legacy of colonialism has held cultural, social, and economic consequences for indigenous youth. 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